In the USA, even more clearly than in other modern democracies, the establishment of religious freedom preceded the establishment of party politics:
- George Washington, Letter to the Hebrew Congregation at Newport, 1790.
Alexander Hamilton explains his economic policies:
Thomas Jefferson sounds out public opinion about congressional acceptance of Hamilton's policies among old Anti-federalists, and asserts that it is important for the government to pay "more attention… to the general opinion" about its policies:
- Letter to George Mason, 4 February 1791.
In 1787, James Madison had written about parties ("factions") and public opinion in The Federalist:
Madison adjusts his earlier views on parties and public opinion, and advances a republican critique of Hamilton's policies:
- National Gazette articles (December 1791September 1792)
In private, Jefferson and Hamilton vie with each other for President Washington's support:
- Letters and Conversations (February 1792February 1793)
President Washington warns Americans about the excesses of partisanship:
- Farewell Address, 19 September 1796.
President Adams warns Americans about partisanship influenced by foreign powers, and denies that he has any anti-republican opinions:
- Inaugural Address, 4 March 1797.
Jefferson reassures Republicans by explaining why their principles and natural electoral advantages will soon prevail:
- Letter to John Taylor, 4 June 1798.
The Federalist-controlled Congress legislates against the communication of false and scandalous statements about the federal government:
- The Sedition Act, 14 July 1798.
Two state legislatures protest against the Sedition Act and other actions of the federal government, and invite other state governments to join in their protest:
- The Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions, 1798.
Jefferson's platform for the Republican party, reaffirming his confidence that the "unquestionable republicanism of the American mind will break through the mist under which it has been clouded":
- Letter to Elbridge Gerry, 26 January 1799.
President Jefferson reflects on the partisan "contest of opinion" of the decade leading to the electoral Revolution of 1800, and explains "the essential principles" that will shape his administration.
- Jefferson's First Inaugural Address, 4 March 1801.
Jefferson expresses confidence in public opinion and "public indignation" to protect "the union of sentiment" that increasingly supports the Republican party's administration of the government.
- Jefferson's Second Inaugural Address, 4 March 1805.
Looking back again on the peaceful electoral "Revolution of 1800," Jefferson asserts the political superiority of the popularly elected branches of government to the judiciary, although (and because) "the people" are not "independent of… moral law":
- Letter to Spencer Roane, 6 September 1819.
Abraham Lincoln tries to persuade Americans not to abandon ballots for bullets:
- First Inaugural Address, 4 March 1861.